Zeolites are a large category of mineral powders that possess specific properties and structure and they mainly consist of earth elements. Zeolites are crystalized aluminosilicates with micrometer-sized crystals and regular nanometer-sized pores. The structure of zeolites consists of the following main elements: silicon, aluminum, and oxygen. The following cations can be used in the structure of zeolites: Na+, K+, NH4+, H+. Moreover, other cations can be used according to the application of zeolite. The natural zeolites are mainly used for the following applications:
- Additives to the detergents
- Additives to the food of domestic animals, birds, and fishes
- Production of ceramics
- Production of materials needed in agriculture
- Production of sorbent, etc.
Other types of zeolites, which has been known as synthetic zeolites, are made in the laboratory by synthesizing natural zeolite and can be used for the following applications:
- As a catalyst for catalyzing oil, gas, and petrochemical reaction
- Preventing the use of fuel pollutants in industrial units and vehicles running on fossil fuels
Zeolite ZSM-5 is one of the important synthetic zeolites that is mostly used in industry. The patent zeolite synthesis was first obtained by Mobil Co. in 1975 and shortly after, the production of synthetic zeolites was initiated. ZSM-5 is extensively used in the oil industry as the catalyst of hydrocarbon transformation. With the aid of almighty God, using all domestic potentials and facilities, and practical and research works, Pak Shimi Farayand Co. localized the technical knowledge of manufacturing this type of zeolite and has taken important steps in order to eliminate the dependence on import of this practical mineral material. ZSM-5 produced by Pak Shimi Farayand Co. possesses a large molar ratio of silicon to alumina (more than 40) and specific level of approximately.